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Cut and cover

Once the deck is in place surface activity can largely resume as construction works continue below During construction of the stations poured concrete or pre-cast panels are used to form the various levels and internal structures similar to the construction of the underground basements of high rise buildings Cut and cover construction methodGet price

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What are the main methods of mining?

There are four main mining methods underground open surface (pit) placer and in-situ mining Underground mines are more expensive and are often used to reach deeper deposits Surface mines are typically used for more shallow and less valuable deposits Placer mining is used to sift out valuable metals from sediments in river channels beach sands or other environments In-situ mining Get price

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ExEExxExcavations and Excavation cavations and Excavation

Where the soil will not remain open without caving a form of trench support can be utilized Temporary support methods such as trench boxes or hydraulic shoring have been utilized Trench boxes are generally used in open areas it is a structure that supports the sides of an excavation and is designed to prevent cave-ins (Figure 2) Get price

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Earthworks

Earthworks Each construction project has a specific earthworkwhich classified to two types 1 Excavations while for wide excavation open cut method shall be used because it's more economic although it needs more Ground water normally lowered by pumping from open sumps within the excavation the sumps being sheet-piled or close Get price

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Excavation and Trenching Soil Classification and Collapses

After the recently released OSHA Excavation and Trenching Safety guide which clarified the standards in excavation and provided tips for general contractors and others in construction working in and around trenches This guide provided a plethora of information covered in our introduction article on the topic or other methods Get price

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Open Pit Mining Techniques

Open-pit Mining Open-pit mining also known as opencast mining open-cut mining and strip mining means a process of digging out rock or minerals from the earth by their elimination from an open pit or borrow The word is used to distinguish this type of mining from extractive methods Get price

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Complete List of Different Methods of Tunnel Construction

Methods of Tunnel Construction The method of Tunnel construction adopted for a project depends on various factors Tunnel construction and Tunnel Engineering is considered to be one of the most sophisticated and specialized art in the field of Civil Engineering Unpredictable ground conditions environmental requirements and geological factors makes Tunneling a challenging job Get price

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Safety Risk Investigation of Horizontal Directional

Safety Risk Investigation of Horizontal Directional Drilling Projects Phalguni Yamuna Moganti Clemson University SAFETY RISK INVESTIGATION OF HORIZONTAL DIRECTIONAL DRILLING PROJECTS A Thesis Presented to traditional open-cut construction method A sustainable alternative is the use of trenchlessGet price

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An introduction to pipe jacking and microtunnelling

method of working than open trench construction or traditional segmental tunnelling When considering the risks associated with deep large section open excavations Health and Safety Executive guidance suggests these risks should be reduced "if appropriate using 'trenchless' technology to avoid the need to excavate the trenchGet price

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EOSC 547 Tunnelling Underground Design

Excavation Methods Selection of a tunnelling system of the cut cover construction site and to help minimize disruption to traffic 8 of 41 Tunnelling Grad Class (2017) Dr Erik Eberhardt Tunnel Excavation in Soft Ground Conditions Open shields are favoured where the ground is free standing Get price

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Wellpoint Dewatering

Wellpoints are typically installed in lines or rings around the excavation and are pumped by diesel or electrically powered pumps with associated header mains water discharge pipes power supply generators electrical controls and monitoring systems Groundwater Engineering provides complete wellpoint dewatering solutions Get price

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Safe Work Method Of Statement For Excavation Works

Dec 06 2016Mark required area to be excavated locate the building limits with enough space for open cut excavation Clear remove from site obstructions to excavations establish maintain accurate lines levels as required provide batter boards line stakes templates establish permanent reference lines bench marks required Get price

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Code Compliant Construction

–Construction documents shall be of sufficient clarity to indicate the location nature and extent of work and show in detail that such work conforms to the provisions of the code [R106 1 1] –A complete load path from peak of roof to the foundation is required [R301 1] Get price

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Delivery Methods Presentation

Delivery Methods CMRisk Characteristics Two contracts (Architect Contractor) CM is selected on qualifications and fees Some construction risks are transferred to GC Similar to CM Multi-Prime for selection and management of the work Open book on costs (subcontractor and supplier payments) and procurement process Flexibility to price the projectGet price

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Model Code of Practice Excavation work

is considered to be 'high risk construction work' for which a Safe Work Method Statement (SWMS) must be prepared Further guidance on the duties related to high risk construction work and SWMS is available in the Code of Practice Construction work Other key terms relating to excavation work are listed in Appendix A Get price

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HOW TO COMPUTE VOLUME OF EXCAVATION WORK ON SITE

Nov 20 2015The borrow-pit method uses a grid and the average depth of the excavation to determine the volume Before the excavating begins the field engineer creates a grid over the entire area where the excavation is to occur Elevation data are collected at each of Get price

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tunnels and underground excavations

Tunnels and underground excavations horizontal underground passageway produced by excavation or occasionally by nature's action in dissolving a soluble rock Tunnels have many uses for mining ores for transportation—including road vehicles trains subways and canals—and for Get price

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Safe Work Method Of Statement For Excavation Works

Dec 06 2016Mark required area to be excavated locate the building limits with enough space for open cut excavation Clear remove from site obstructions to excavations establish maintain accurate lines levels as required provide batter boards line stakes templates establish permanent reference lines bench marks required Get price

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Model Code of Practice Excavation work

is considered to be 'high risk construction work' for which a Safe Work Method Statement (SWMS) must be prepared Further guidance on the duties related to high risk construction work and SWMS is available in the Code of Practice Construction work Other key terms relating to excavation work are listed in Appendix A Get price

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Rock Tunnelling

Drill and blast is an excavation method used frequently in hard rock tunnelling because its flexibility allows for different layout setups WSP has used drill and blast to build tunnels with diameters up to 30m wide mostly supported by steel bolts and fiber reinforced shotcrete (sprayed concrete) Get price

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The Manitoba Water Services Board SECTION 022180

The Manitoba Water Services Board SECTION 022180 Standard Construction Specifications PIPE EXCAVATION BEDDING 201 September 3 AND BACKFILL Page 2 of 11 1 3 STANDARDS The following organization publish Standards which have been referred to in thisGet price

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SELECTION OF CONSTRUCTION METHODS IN ROCK

construction method (excavation method lining system) In NATM tunneling average daily advance rates can reach 10 to 15 m in favorable rock conditions with peak rates up to 20 m/day Even in poor conditions (e g in fault zones) 2 to 3 m/d are possible due to the high flexibility of the method Get price

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Excavation Earthwork and Filling Method Statement

iv) Method of trench supports v) Method and sequence of excavation to ensure that no damage is caused to adjoining structures and property If there is potential for damage to adjoining structures and property the type of preventative measures should be indicated Get price

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DIAPHRAGM WALLS CUT

continuously cut into one panel by sucking the soil-bentonite slurry at the cutter head while replacing it with fresh bentonite at the panel's top Construction sequence Two different construction techniques the alternating method (or Pilgrim) and the continuous method can be distinguished for excavation Get price

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An introduction to pipe jacking and microtunnelling

method of working than open trench construction or traditional segmental tunnelling When considering the risks associated with deep large section open excavations Health and Safety Executive guidance suggests these risks should be reduced "if appropriate using 'trenchless' technology to avoid the need to excavate the trenchGet price

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The Four Major Dewatering Methods and How to Choose One

Apr 12 2016Learn which option is right for your next excavation project There are a wide variety of methods used to control groundwater during an excavation Selecting the right dewatering process is a critical step in almost any construction project Each individual job brings with it a unique set of ground conditions and therefore must be assessed []Get price

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under the Construction Sites (Safety) Regulations

Construction Site means a place where construction work is undertaken and also any area in the immediate vicinity of any such place which is used for the storage of materials or plant used or intended to be used for the purpose of the construction work Construction Work has the meaning under the Factories and Industrial UndertakingsGet price

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Surface Mining Methods and Equipment

UNESCO – EOLSS SAMPLE CHAPTERS CIVIL ENGINEERING – Vol II - Surface Mining Methods and Equipment - J Yamatomi and S Okubo Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) Figure 2 Change in production and productivity of US coal mines The higher productivity for open pit mining equipment also lowers costs Get price

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Preventing accidents in excavations

an excavation 1) Always batter back edges or support the sides of excavations to reduce risk of collapse 2) Control plant movements around excavations and ensure that top blocks are used where necessary 3) Ensure safe means of access and egress into and out of the excavationGet price

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CHAPTER 5 SURFACE AND SLOPE PROTECTIVE MEASURES

The second technique utilizes green cuttings or branches from alder cottonwood or willow On cut slopes cuttings from 0 5 to 2 0 meters in length are used On fill slopes cutting length can vary from 2 0 to 5 0 meters This method is particularly suited for use in critical and sensitive areas Get price

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